THE NEW PROPAGANDISTS
WHO are the men who, without our realizing it, give us our ideas, tell us whom to admire and whom to despise, what to believe about the ownership of public utilities, about the tariff, about the price of rubber, about the Dawes Plan, about immigration; who tell us how our houses should be designed, what furniture we should put into them, what menus we should serve on our table, what kind of shirts we must wear, what sports we should indulge in, what plays we should see, what charities we should sup- port, what pictures we should admire, what slang we should affect, what jokes we should laugh at?
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
THE systematic study of mass psychology re- vealed to students the potentialities of invisible gov- ernment of society by manipulation of the motives which actuate man in the group. Trotter and Le Bon, who approached the subject in a scientific man- ner, and Graham Wallas, Walter Lippmann and others who continued with searching studies of the group mind, established that the group has mental characteristics distinct from those of the individual, and is motivated by impulses and emotions which cannot be explained on the basis of what we know of individual psychology. So the question naturally arose: If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing it?
CHAPTER V BUSINESS AND THE PUBLIC
THE relationship between business and the public has become closer in the past few decades. Business to-day is taking the public into partnership. A num- ber of causes, some economic, others due to the grow- ing public understanding of business and the public interest in business, have produced this situation. Business realizes that its relationship to the public is not confined to the manufacture and sale of a given product, but includes at the same time the selling of itself and of all those things for which it stands in the public mind.
PROPAGANDA AND POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
THE great political problem in our modern democracy is how to induce our leaders to lead. The dogma that the voice of the people is the voice of God tends to make elected persons the will-less servants of their constituents. This is undoubtedly part cause of the political sterility of which certain American critics constantly complain.
WOMEN’S ACTIVITIES AND PROPAGANDA
WOMEN in contemporary America have achieved a legal equality with men. This does not mean that their activities are identical with those of men. Women in the mass still have special interests and activities in addition to their economic pursuits and vocational interests.
PROPAGANDA FOR EDUCATION
EDUCATION is not securing its proper share of public interest. The public school system, materially and financially, is being adequately supported. There is marked eagerness for a college education, and a vague aspiration for culture, expressed in innumerable courses and lectures. The public is not cognizant of the real value of education, and does not realize that education as a social force is not receiving the kind of attention it has the right to expect in a democracy.
PROPAGANDA IN SOCIAL SERVICE
THE public relations counsel is necessary to social work. And since social service, by its very nature, can continue only by means of the voluntary support of the wealthy, it is obliged to use propaganda con- tinually. The leaders in social service were among the first consciously to utilize propaganda in its modern sense.
ART AND SCIENCE
IN the education of the American public toward greater art appreciation, propaganda plays an im- portant part. When art galleries seek to launch the canvases of an artist they should create public accept- ance for his works. To increase public appreciation a deliberate propagandizing effort must be made.
THE MECHANICS OF PROPAGANDA
THE media by which special pleaders transmit their messages to the public through propaganda in- clude all the means by which people to-day transmit their ideas to one another. There is no means of hu- man communication which may not also be a means of deliberate propaganda, because propaganda is simply the establishing of reciprocal understanding between an individual and a group.